Book of Isaiah

This is a study of Isaiah 18-20, three chapters in the so-called Isaianic prophecies concerning the nations, Isaiah 13-23 (24-27). Beyond being located close to each other in this literary corpus, there is at least one common element that ties these three chapters together: Isaiah 18-20 deal with two neighbouring countries of the Nile, Kush and Egypt respectively.

This article argues that Isa 29,15-24 is composed of five coherent segments. The early Isaianic word, 29,15+21, was reinterpreted in a new way by an exilic author in 29,16-17+20. The presupposed blindness of Yhwh serving as a motivation for an ungodly life by those addressed in 29,15, is reconsidered as the ideology of desperate people who deem the blindness of Yhwh explains the present desolate condition of Jerusalem. The former injustice in Isaiah's society (29,21) is reinterpreted as the injustice of the foreign tyrant against the people of Yhwh. Isa 29,18+24 (the blindness of the people) and 29,19+23d-e (the oppressed Yhwh-fearing people) elaborate on the same theme in a larger context and presuppose a similar situation and author as implied by 29,16-17+21, probably to be identified with Deutero-Isaiah. A final expansion of the text reassessing the seeing of Jacob and the reverence of Yhwh by his descendants can be discerned in 29,22-23c, which probably comes from the post-exilic period.

This article discusses the MT of Isa 33,12 and argues that the verse line "the nations will be burned to lime (שִׂיד)" is difficult in its context and distorts the parallelism, describing the fall of the enemy of Judah with the help of plant-imagery. Although Am 2,1 is often mentioned in connection with Isa 33,12, closer analysis shows that there are differences between the two texts. It is suggested that the LXX should be followed here, which goes back to a Hebrew text reading שָׂדַי, "field", "(agricultural) land" instead of שִׂיד, "lime".

A tanítványság intézménye rendkívüli jelentőséggel bír az Újszövetség szempontjából. De vajon van-e valamilyen nyoma ennek az intézménynek a hellenista világon túl? Beszélhetünk-e tanítványságról az Ószövetségben? Játszott-e valamiféle szerepet az Ószövetség abban, hogy a tanítványság ilyen formát öltött a zsidóságon belül?

In contrast to most opinions concerning Isa 33 this pericope is far too complex to be explained as one coherent literary unit. Isa 33 has a short anti-Assyrian woe-cry at its bases (vv. 1+4), which once closed the woe-cries of Isa 28–32. Vv. 1+4 were supplemented first (around 598 or 587) by a communal lament, vv. 2-3+5+7-12, bringing the idea of the punishment of Judah and the temporised destruction of the enemy in vv. 1+4 further. Second, (shortly after 539) vv. 1-5.7-12 were expanded by a salvation prophecy, vv. 6+13-24, concerning the returnees, the restoration of Jerusalem and the monarchy.


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